Promotion Exams: A Comprehensive Guide On ClassRoom Assessment, Measurement, Evaluation

Teachers writing NTC licensure examination
Teachers writing NTC licensure examination

We have compiled notes on all you need to read in Assessment, Measurement, and Evaluation for the best sail in all your course-related endeavours.

A comprehensive guide for the Meaning of Assessment, Measurement, and Evaluation. Also, the Types of Validity, Differences between Initial Assessment and Diagnostic Assessment, and trial questions.

The trial questions are meant to guide you on how to understand the entire course.

What is Assessment?

Assessment is the process of gathering information to make critical decisions about a student.

Methods used to gather information for Assessment

There are various methods used to gather information for assessment. This includes observation, checklist, project work, formal and informal tests.

What is Measurement?

Measurement refers to the process of quantifying an individual’s achievement, personality, attributes, habits, and skills.

In measurement, marks are assigned to the attributes being measured.

Ghana Education Service (GES)
Ghana Education Service (GES)

Forms of Evaluation

There are two (2) forms of Evaluation.

They are Formative and Summative.

Evaluation is the qualitative description of the student’s performance.

School evaluation can be Formative or Summative

Formative evaluation is where the students are evaluated continuously over a period of time.

Summative evaluation takes place at the end of a period of study. Example: End of term 8 exams etc.


A test is a technique for obtaining information needed for evaluation purposes.

A test can be administered verbally, on paper, or on a computer.

A test instrument must be valid and reliable.

What is validity of test instrument?

The validity of a test instrument refers to the degree to which the test measures what it is intended to measure.

What is Reliability in assessment?

Reliability is the consistency of response to a test. For instance, if a student scores 60 marks in English on Monday and Friday the same test is administered to him and he scores 20 marks then the test instrument is not reliable.

What is a criterion-referenced test?

A criterion-referenced test is the one that measures students’ performance against a pre-established standard.

A norm-referenced test

A norm-referenced test compares the performance of the students with others who took the same test. For instance, if the average mark is 55 and we take that as the pass mark then students who score 53 would be deemed to have failed.


1. Face Validity ascertains that the measure appears to be assessing the intended construct under study. The stakeholders can easily assess face validity. Although this is not a very “scientific” type of validity, it may be an essential component in enlisting the motivation of stakeholders. If the stakeholders do not believe the measure is an accurate assessment of their ability, they may become disengaged with the task.

Example: If a measure of art appreciation is created all of the items should be related to the different components and types of art.

If the questions are regarding historical periods, with no reference to any artistic movement, stakeholders may not be motivated to give their best effort or invest in this measure because they do not believe it is a true assessment of art appreciation.

2. Construct Validity is used to ensure that the measure actually measures what it is intended to measure (i.e. the construct), and not other variables. Using a panel of “experts” familiar with the construct is a way in which this type of validity can be assessed.

The experts can examine the items and decide what that specific item is intended to measure. Students can be involved in this process to obtain their feedback.

Example: A women’s studies programme may design a cumulative assessment of learning throughout the major. The questions are written with complicated wording and phrasing.

This can cause the test inadvertently becoming a test of reading comprehension, rather than a test of women’s studies. It is important that the measure is assessing the intended construct, rather than an extraneous factor.

3. Criterion-Related

Validity is used to predict future or current performance – it correlates test results with another criterion of interest.

Example: If a physics programme designed a measure to assess cumulative student learning throughout the major, the new measure could be correlated with a standardized measure of ability in this discipline, such as an ETS field test or the GRE subject test.

The higher the correlation between the established measure and the new measure, the more faith stakeholders can have in the new assessment tool.

4. Formative Validity when applied to outcomes assessment is used to assess how well a measure can provide information to help improve the program under study.

Example: When designing a rubric for history one could assess students’ knowledge across the discipline.

If the measure can provide information that students are lacking knowledge in a certain area, for instance, the Civil Rights Movement, then that assessment tool is providing meaningful information that can be used to improve the course or program requirements.

5. Sampling Validity (similar to content validity) ensures that the measure covers a broad range of areas within the concept under study. Not everything can be covered, so items need to be sampled from all of the domains.

This may need to be completed using a panel of “experts” to ensure that the content area is adequately sampled. Additionally, a panel can help limit “expert” bias (i.e. a test reflecting what an individual personally feels are the most important or relevant areas).

Example: When designing an assessment of learning in the theatre department, it would not be sufficient to only cover issues related to acting.

Other areas of theatre such as lighting, sound, and functions of stage managers should all be included. The assessment should reflect the content area in its entirety.

Ghana Education Service

What are some ways to improve validity?

Make sure your goals and objectives are clearly defined and operationalized. The expectations of students should be written down.
Match your assessment measure to your goals and objectives.

Additionally, have the test reviewed by faculty at other schools to obtain feedback from an outside party who is less invested in the instrument?

Get students involved; have the students look over the assessment for troublesome wording, or other difficulties.

If possible, compare your measure with other measures, or data that may be available.


Reflect using these questions and many others.

What is reliability?

What is validity?


Initial and diagnostic assessments are used as part of the onboarding process for new learners, the assessments help you to get to know them, their skill level, and the best way to teach them.

The two assessments are closely linked, however, they provide different results when completed by a learner which can then be used as the basis for the learner’s individual learning plan.

What is an initial assessment?

An initial assessment should take place at the time of the learner’s transition into their new learning programme. The initial assessment can be used to help the organisation find out about the learner as an individual, and to identify any aspects that without the assessment, may have gone unnoticed.

This means should a learner’s programme require adjustments to match their individual needs, this can be implemented from the beginning.

What is a diagnostic assessment?

A diagnostic assessment helps to identify specific learning strengths and needs. It can evaluate a learner’s skills, knowledge, strengths, and areas for development in a particular subject area.

The results will determine the level at which your learner is sat, where improvements need to be made, and which areas learners may have higher-level skills than others.

Diagnostic assessments are performed at the start of a learner programme, similar to initial assessments, however, can also be used throughout the programme to assess progress.

Differences between Initial Assessment and Diagnostic Assessment

Initial assessment

Initial assessments can be used to help you to find out about your learners as individuals, and to identify any particular aspects which might otherwise go unnoticed.

It is best to do this prior to the programme commencing. This will allow time to deal with any issues that might arise or to guide learners to a different, more appropriate programme if necessary.

Initial assessment can:

allow for differentiation and individual requirements to be planned for and met
ascertain why your learner wants to take the programme along with their capability to achieve find out the expectations and motivations of your learner and give your learner the confidence to negotiate suitable targets identify any information which needs to be shared with colleagues
identify any specific additional support needs.

Diagnostic assessment

Diagnostic assessments can be used to evaluate a learner’s skills, knowledge, strengths, and areas for development in a particular subject area. It could be that your learner feels they are capable of achieving at a higher level than the diagnostic assessments determine.

The results will give a thorough indication of not only the level at which your learner needs to be placed for their subject but also which specific aspects they need to improve on. Skills tests can be used for learners to demonstrate what they can do, whereas knowledge tests can be used for learners to demonstrate what they know and understand.

Diagnostic tests can also be used to ascertain information regarding English, Mathematics, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills.

The information gained from the results of these tests will help you plan to meet any individual needs and/or arrange further training and support if necessary.

Diagnostic assessments can be used as part of the information, advice, and guidance (IAG) service if applicable at your organisation.

Diagnostic assessment can:

ascertain learning preferences e.g. visual, aural, read/write and kinaesthetic (VARK)
enable learners to demonstrate their current level of skills, knowledge, and understanding ensure learners can access appropriate support identify an appropriate starting point and level for each learner
identify gaps in skills, knowledge, and understanding to highlight areas to work on identify previous experience, knowledge, achievements, and transferable skills identify specific requirements. For example, English, maths, and ICT skills.


1. In education, __________ is used to make inference about the learning and development of students.

(A) assessment
(B) evaluation
(C) measurement
(D) diagnosis

2. A/An __________ assessment is one which measures what it is intended to measure.

(A) Valid
(B) Invalid
(C) Reliable
(D) Unreliable

3. An assessment that is conducted prior to the start of teaching or instruction is called

(A) initial assessment
(B) formal assessment
(C) formative assessment
(D) summative assessment

4. An assessment that is carried out throughout the course is called
(A) initial assessment
(B) diagnostic assessment
(C) formative assessment
(D) summative assessment

5. An assessment is __________ if it consistently achieves the same results with the same (or similar) students.
(A) Valid
(B) Invalid
(C) Reliable
(D) Unreliable



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